A+ A A-







The dynastic connection of Luxemburg with Holland ceased with the accession of Queen Wilhelmina. The conditions under which the Belgian province of Luxemburg was created, by the Treaty of Vienna in 1815, a grand-duchy under the sovereignty of the head of the House of Orange-Nassau with succession in default of heirs-male by the family compact, known as the Nassauischer Erbverein , to the nearest male agnate of the elder branch of the Nassau family, have already been related. With the death of William III the male line of the House of Orange-Nassau became extinct; and the succession passed to Adolphus, Duke of Nassau-Weilburg. How unfortunate and ill-advised was the action of the Congress of Vienna in the creation of the Grand-Duchy of Luxemburg was abundantly shown by the difficulties and passions which it aroused in the course of the negotiations for the erection of Belgium into an independent state (1830-39). By the treaty of April 19, 1839, the Walloon portion of Luxemburg became part of the kingdom of Belgium, but in exchange for this cession the grand-Duke obtained the sovereignty of a strip of the Belgian province of Limburg. This caused a fresh complication.

Luxemburg in 1815 was not merely severed from the Netherlands; it, as a sovereign grand-duchy, was made a state of the Germanic confederation. By virtue of the exchange sanctioned by the treaty of 1839, the ceded portion of Limburg became a state of the confederation. But with the revision of the Dutch constitution, which in 1840 followed the final separation of Holland and Belgium, by the wish of the king his duchy of Limburg was included in the new Fundamental Law, and thus became practically a Dutch province. The Limburgers had thus a strange and ambiguous position. They had to pay taxes, to furnish military contingents and to send deputies to two different sovereign authorities. This state of things continued with more or less friction, until the victory of Prussia over Austria in 1866 led to the dissolution of the Germanic confederation. At the conference of London, 1867, Luxemburg was declared to be an independent state, whose neutrality was guaranteed [pg.430] by the Great Powers, while Limburg became an integral portion of the kingdom of the Netherlands.

Since the middle of the last century the financial position of Holland has been continuously improving. The heavy indebtedness of the Country, in the period which followed the separation from Belgium, was gradually diminished. This was effected for a number of years by the doubtful expedient of the profits derived from the exploitation of the East Indian colonies through the "Cultivation System." With the passing of the revised Fundamental Law of 1848 the control of colonial affairs and of the colonial budget was placed in the hands of the States-General; and a considerable section of the Liberal party began henceforth to agitate for the abolition of a system which was very oppressive to the Javanese population. It was not, however, until 1871 that the reform was carried out. Meanwhile, chiefly by the efforts of Thorbecke, the methods of home finance had been greatly improved by the removal, so far as possible, of indirect imposts, and the introduction of a free trade policy, which since his days has been steadily maintained. Such a policy is admirably suitable to a Country which possesses neither minerals nor coal [15], and whose wealth is mainly due to sea-or river-borne trade, to dairy farming and to horticulture. For its supply of corn and many other necessary commodities Holland has to look to other Countries. The fisheries still form one of the staple industries of the land, and furnish a hardy sea-faring population for the considerable mercantile marine, which is needed for constant intercourse with a colonial empire (the third in importance at the present time) consisting chiefly of islands in a far-distant ocean.

Between 1850 and 1914, 375,430,000 fl. have been devoted to the reduction of debt; and the Sinking Fund in 1915 was 6,346,000 fl. Since that date Holland has suffered from the consequences of the Great War, but, having successfully maintained her neutrality, she has suffered relatively far less than any of her neighbours. Taxation in Holland has always been high. It is to a large extent an artificial Country; and vast sums have been expended and must always be expended in the upkeep of the elaborate system of dykes and canals, by which the waters of the ocean and the rivers are controlled and prevented from flooding large areas of land lying below sea level.

Culture in Holland is widely diffused. The well-to-do classes [pg.431] usually read and speak two or three languages beside their own; and the Dutch language is a finished literary tongue of great flexibility and copiousness. The system of education is excellent. Since 1900 attendance at the primary schools between the ages of six and thirteen is compulsory. Between the primary schools intermediate education ( middelbaaronderwijs ) is represented by "burgher night-schools" and "higher burgher schools." The night-schools are intended for those engaged in agricultural or industrial work; the "higher schools" for technical instruction, and much attention is paid to the study of the vier talen —French, English, German and Dutch. In connection with these there is an admirable School of Agriculture, Horticulture and Forestry at Wageningen in Gelderland. To the teaching at Wageningen is largely due the acknowledged supremacy of Holland in scientific horticulture. There is a branch establishment at Groningen for agricultural training, and another at Deventer for instruction in subjects connected with colonial life. The gymnasia , which are to be found in every town, are preparatory to the universities. The course lasts six years; and the study of Latin and Greek in addition to modern languages is compulsory. There are four universities, Leyden, Utrecht, Groningen and Amsterdam. The possession of a doctor's degree at one of these universities is necessary for magistrates, physicians, advocates, and for teachers in the gymnasia and higher burgher schools.

In so small a Country the literary output is remarkable, and, marked as it is by scientific and intellectual distinction, deserves to be more widely read. The Dutch are justly proud of the great part their forefathers played during the War of Independence, and in the days of John de Witt and William III. For scientific historical research in the national archives, and in the publication of documents bearing upon and illustrating the national annals, Dutch historians can compare favourably with those of any other Country. Special mention should be made of the labours of Robert Fruin, who may be described as the founder of a school with many disciples, and whose collected works are a veritable treasure-house of brilliant historical studies, combining careful research with acute criticism. Among his many disciples the names of Dr P.J. Blok and Dr H.T. Colenbrander are perhaps the best known.

In the department of Biblical criticism there have been in Holland several writers of European repute, foremost among whom stands the name of Abraham Kuenen. [pg.432]

Dutch writers of fiction have been and are far more numerous than could have been expected from the limited number of those able to read their works. In the second half of the 19th century, J. van Lennep and Mevrouw Bosboom-Toussaint were the most prolific writers. Both of these were followers of the Walter Scott tradition, their novels being mainly patriotic romances based upon episodes illustrating the past history of the Dutch people. Van Lennep's contributions to literature were, however, by no means confined to the writing of fiction, as his great critical edition of Vondel's poetical works testifies. Mevrouw Bosboom-Toussaint's novels were not only excellent from the literary point of view, but as reproductions of historical events were most conscientiously written. Her pictures, for instance, of the difficult and involved period of Leicester's governor-generalship are admirable. The writings of Douwes Dekker (under the pseudonym Multatuli) are noteworthy from the fact that his novel Max Havelaar , dealing with life in Java and setting forth the sufferings of the natives through the "cultivation system," had a large share in bringing about its abolition.

The 20th century school of Dutch novelists is of a different type from their predecessors and deals with life and life's problems in every form. Among the present-day authors of fiction, the foremost place belongs to Louis Conperus, an idealist and mystic, who as a stylist is unapproached by any of his contemporaries.

No account of modern Holland would be complete without a notice of the great revival of Dutch painting, which has taken place in the past half century. Without exaggeration it may indeed be said that this modern renascence of painting in Holland is not unworthy to be compared with that of the days of Rembrandt. The names of Joseph Israels, Hendrik Mesdag, Vincent van Gogh, Anton Maure, and, not least, of the three talented brothers Maris, have attained a wide and well-deserved reputation. And to these must be added others of high merit: Bilders, Scheffer, Bosboom, Rochussen, Bakhuysen, Du Chattel, De Haas and Haverman. The traditional representation of the Dutchman as stolid, unemotional, wholly absorbed in trade and material interests, is a caricature. These latter-day artists, like those of the 17th century, conclusively prove that the Dutch race is singularly sensitive to the poetry of form and colour, and that it possesses an inherited capacity and power for excelling in the technical qualities of the painter's art.


 [1]Hollandais, Holländer, Olandesi, Olandeses, etc.

 [2]In French books and documents, Jacqueline.


 [4]By English and French writers generally translated Grand Pensionary.

 [5]It must be remembered that the States-General and the Holland Estates sat in the same building.

 [6]Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations , I, 101.

 [7]Busken Huet, Land van Rembrant , III, 175.

 [8]Acte van Seclusie.

 [9]Nassauischer Erbverein.

 [10]Charles White, The Belgic Revolution , 1835, vol. 1, p. 106.

 [11]Correspondence sécrète des Pays-Bas . Julian received his report of the conversation direct from Count Bylandt by permission of the king.

 [12]From Van Maanen's private papers. See Colenbrander's Belgische Omwenteling , p. 139.

 [13]The ratification by the Powers took place on the following dates:—France and Great Britain, January 31; Austria and Prussia, April 18; Russia, May 4, 1832.

 [14]The Prince of Orange had married Anna Paulovna, sister of Alexander I, in 1816.

 [15]The Belgian coal field extends into Dutch Limburg.





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WITSEN GEYSBEEK, P. G. Biographisch, anthologisch, en critisch woordenboek der Nederlandsche dicters. 6 vols. Amsterdam. 1821-7.

WYBRANTS, C. E. Het Amsterdamsch tooneel. Amsterdam. 1875.


BRANDT, G. Historic der reformatie en andere kerkelijke geschiedennissen in en omtrent de Nederlanden tot 1600. 4 vols. Amsterdam. 1677-1704.

CHATELAIN, N. Histoire du Synode de Dordrecht dès 1609 à 1619.
Amsterdam. 1841.

FRUIN, R. De wederopluiking van het Katholicisme in Noord-Nederland omtrent den aanvang der 17'e eeuw. Amsterdam. 1894.

KNUTTEL, W.P.C. De toestand der Nederl. Katholieken ten tijde der Republiek. 2 vols. The Hague. 1892-4.

MONTANUS, A. Kerkelijke historic van Nederland. Amsterdam. 1675.

MONTIJN, G.G. Geschiedenis der Hervorming in de Nederlanden. 5 vols. Arnhem. 1858-64.

NUIJENS, W.J.F. Geschiedenis der kerkelijke en politieke geschillen in de Republiek der Zeven Vereen. Prov., 1598-1625. 2 vols. Amsterdam. 1886.

REGENBORG, J. Historic der Remonstranten. 2 vols. Amsterdam. 1774.

VEEN, A.J. V.D. Remonstranten en Contra-Remonstranten. 2 vols. Sneek. 1858.


( a ) ORIGINAL AUTHORITIES AND COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS Actes, Mémoires et autres pièces authentiques concernant la paix d'Utrecht. 6 vols. Utrecht. 1714-15.

BOWDLER, T. Letters written in Holland in the months of September and October, 1787, to which is added a Collection of letters and other papers relating to the journey of the Princess of Orange on June 29, 1787. London. 1788.

Brieven en negotiatien van L.L. van de Spiegel. Amsterdam. 1803.

Brieven van Prins Willem V aan Baron v. Leynden. The Hague. 1893.

DE JONGE, J.K.J. Documents politiques et diplomatiques sur les revolutions de 1787 et 1795 dans la republique des Provinces Unies. (Ned. Rijk's Archief.) The Hague. 1859.

Lettres et mémoires sur la conduite de la présente guerre et sur les negotiations de paix, jusqu'à la fin des conferences de Geertruidenbergh. 2 vols. The Hague. 1711-12.

LINGUET, S.N.H. Lettres au Comte de Trauttmansdorf, ministre plenipotentiaire par Empereur [Joseph II] aux Pays-Bas, 1788 et 1789. Brussels. 1790.

MAGUETTE, F. Joseph II et la liberté de l'Escaut. Mémoires couronnés et autres Mémoires publiés par l'Académie Royale des Sciences de Belgique. Vol. xv. Brussels. 1898.

Malmesbury, Diaries and Correspondence of James Harris, Earl of. 4 vols. London. 1844.

MANDRILLON, J.H. Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de la Révolution des Provinces Unies en 1787. Paris. 1791.

Marlborough, Despatches of John, Duke of. Ed. Sir G. Murray. 5 vols. London. 1845.

TORCY, MARQUIS DE. Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire des négotiations depuis le traité de Rijswijck jusqu'a la paix d'Utrecht. Paris. 1850.

VREEDE, C.G. Correspondance diplomatique et militaire du duc de Marlborough, du grand-pensionaris Heinsius, et du trésorier-général J. Hop. Amsterdam. 1850.


BOSSCHE, E. VAN DER. Le traité de la Barrière. Bruges. 1880.

COLENBRANDER, H.T. De Patrioten Tijd, 1776-87. 3 vols. The Hague. 1897-99.
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ELLIS, GEORGE. History of the late Revolution in the Dutch Republic. London. 1789.

History of the internal affairs of the United Provinces, from the year 1780 to the commencement of hostilities in June, 1787. London. 1787.

JORISSEN, T. De Patriotten te Amsterdam in 1791. Amsterdam. 1793.

KANE, RICHARD. Campaigns of King William and of the Duke of Marlborough. 2nd ed. London. 1747.

KLUIT, A. Historic der Hollandsche Staatsregering tot 1795. 5 vols. Amsterdam. 1802-5.

LEGRAND, L. La révolution française en Hollande; la république batave. Paris. 1894.

LOON, H.W.v. The Fall of the Dutch Republic. London. 1913.

MEULEN, A.J.v.D. Studies over de ministrie van Van de Spiegel. Leyden. 1906.

ONDAATJE, Q. Bijdragen tot de geschiedenis der omwenteling van 1787. Dunkirk. 1791.

SCHIMMELPENNICK, RUTGER. J.S. en eenige gebeurtenissen van zijn tijd. Amsterdam. 1845.

VERENET, G. Pierre le Grand en Hollande, 1697 et 1717. Utrecht. 1865.

WEBER, O. Die Quadrupel-Allianz vom Jahre 1718. Vienna. 1887.

WREEDE, G.W. Geschiedenis der diplomatic van de bataafsche republiek. 3 vols. Utrecht. 1863.


ARNETH, A., RITTER VON. Prinz Eugen van Savoyen. 3 vols. Vienna. 1856.

KOLLEWIJN, B. Bilderdijk. 2 vols. Amsterdam. 1891.

MENDELS, M.H.W. Daendels, 1762-1818. 2 vols. The Hague. 1890.

NIJHOFF, I.A. De Hertog van Brunswijk. The Hague. 1849.

SCHENK, W.G.F. Wilhelm der Fünfte. Stuttgart. 1884.

SILLEM, J.A. Gogel. Amsterdam. 1864.
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BARTHELS, A. Documents historiques sur la Révolution belge. Brussels. 1836.

BONAPARTE, LOUIS (COMTE DE ST LEU). Documents historiques et réflexions sur le gouvernement de la Hollande. 3 vols. London. 1820.

FALCK, A.R. Brieven 1796-1845 met levensberigt d.O.W. Hora Siccama. The Hague. 1860.

---- Amtsbrieven, 1802-42. The Hague. 1878.

Handelingen van de Staten General (1’e en 2’e Kamer), 1815-47. 51 vols. The Hague. 1863-97.

Histoire parlementaire du traité de paix du 19 Avril, 1839, entre la Belgique et la Hollande, contenant tous les discours. 2 vols. Brussels. 1839.

KRAYENHOFF, C.R.T. Bijdragen tot de vaderlandsche geschiedenis van de belangrijke jaren 1809-10. Nimwegen. 1844.

LIPMAN, S.P. Nederlandsch constitutioneel archief van alle koninklijke aanspraken en parlementaire addressen, 1813-63. 2 vols. Amsterdam. 1846--64.

ROCQUAIS, F. Napoléon et le roi Louis d'après les documents conservés aux archives nationales. Paris. 1875.

SOELEN, VERSTOLK VAN. Recueil de pièces diplomatiques relatives aux affaires de la Hollande et de la Belgique, 1830-2. 3 vols. The Hague. 1831-3.

THORBECKE, J.R. Brieven aan Groen v. Prinsterer, 1830-2. Amsterdam. 1873.
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BEAUFORT, W.H.DE. De eerste regierings jaren van Koning Willem I. Amsterdam. 1886.

BOSCH KEMPER, J. DE. Staatkundige geschiedenis van Nederland na 1830. 5 vols. Amsterdam. 1873-82.

BRUYNE, J.A. Geschiedenis van Nederland in onzen tijd. 5 vols. Schiedam. 1889-1906.

COLENBRANDER, H.T. De Belgische Omwenteling. The Hague. 1905.

GERLACHE, E.C.DE. Histoire du royaume des Pays-Bas depuis 1814 jusqu'en 1830. 3 vols. Brussels. 1842.

HOUTEN, S. VAN. Vijf en twintig jaar in de Kamer, 1869-94. Haarlem. 1905.

KEPPERS, G.L. De regeering van Koning Willem III. Groningen. 1887.
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LASTDRAGER, A.J. Nieuwste geschiedenis v. Nederland in jaarlijksche overzigten (1815-30). 9 vols. Amsterdam. 1839-48.

NOTHOMB, BARON J.B. Essai historique et politique sur la revolution belge. 3 vols. 4th ed. Brussels. 1876.

NUYENS, W.J.F. Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsche Volk van 1815 tot op onze dagen. 4 vols. Amsterdam. 1883-6.

RENGERS, W.J. VAN WALDEREN. Schets eener parlementaire geschiedenis van Nederland sedert 1849. 2 vols. The Hague. 1889.

WITKAMP EN CRAANDIJK. Vereeniging en Scheiding. Geschiedenis van Noord-Nederland en Belgie van 1813-80. Doesburgh. 1881.

WOLF, N.H. De regeering van Koningin Wilhelmina. Rotterdam. 1901.

WÜPPERMAN, W.E.A. Geschiedenis van den Tiendagschen Veldtocht. Amsterdam. 1880.


ABBINK, J.J. Leven van Koning Willem II. Amsterdam. 1849.

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BOS, F. DE. Prins Frederik der Nederlanden. 4 vols. Schiedam. 1857-99.

BOSSCHA, J. Het leven van Willem II, koning der Nederlanden, 1793-1849. Amsterdam. 1852.

BRINK, J. TEN. Prins Frederik der Nederlanden. The Hague. 1881.

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MEES Az, G. Levenschets van G.K. Hogendorp. Amsterdam. 1864.

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THIJM, J.A. Alberdingk, door A.J. Amsterdam. 1893.

VOS, A.J. DE. Groen van Prinsterer en zijn tijd. Dordrecht. 1886.


BOYS, H. SCOTT. Some notes on Java and its administration by the Dutch. Allahabad. 1892.

DAY, C. The policy and administration of the Dutch in Java. New York. 1904.

PERSELAER, M.T.H. Nederlandsche Indië. 4 vols. Leyden. 1891-3.

PIERSON, N.G. Koloniale Politiek. Amsterdam. 1877.

Staatsblad voor Nederl. Indië 1816-80. 46 vols. The Hague and Batavia. 1839-81.

Verslag van het beheer en der staat der Nederlandsche bezittingen in Oost-en West-Indië en ter kust van Guinea. 44 vols. The Hague. 1840-96.


BOISSEVAIN, J.H.G. De Limburgsche Questie. Tiel. 1848.

BRINK, J. TEN. Geschiedenis der Noord-Nederlandsche letteren in de XIX^e eeuw.

EENDEGEEST, G. VAN. Over de droogmaking van het Haarlemmer meer. Vol. I. Leyden. 1842.
Vol. II. The Hague. 1853.
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FRUIN, J.A. De Nederlandsche Wetboeken tot 1876. Utrecht. 1881.

HERINGA, DR A. Free Trade and Protection in Holland. London. 1914.

LOHMAN, A.F. DE SAVORNIN. Onze Constitutie. Utrecht. 1907.

MARIUS, G. HERMINE. Dutch painting in the 19th century. (Trans. by De Mattos.) London. 1908.

NIPPOLD, F. Die Römische Katholische Kirche im Königreich der Niederlände. Leipzig. 1877.

Painting, Modern Dutch. Edinburgh Review. July, 1909.

ROBERTSON SCOTT, J.W. War-time and Peace in Holland. London. 1914.

ROOT, E.W. DE. Geschiedenis van den Nederlandsche Handel. Amsterdam. 1856.

SECKENGA, F.W. Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche Belastingen sedert 1810. The Hague. 1883.

VERSCHAVE, P. La Hollande politique. The Hague. 1910.


The End

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